12 Aralık 2013 Perşembe

Beyoglu - Istiklal Avenue - Taksim

 


Beyoglu is a district located on the  European side of  Istanbul, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of  Constantinople) by the  Golden Horn. It was known as Pera in the Middle Ages, and this name remained in common use until the early 20th century and the establishment of the Turkish Republic.


The district encompasses other neighborhoods located north of the  Golden Horn, including  Galata (the medieval Genoese citadel from which Beyoglu itself originated),  Karakoy, Cihangir, Sishane, Tepebasi, Tarlabasi, Dolapdere and Kasimpasa, and is connected to the old city center across the  Golden Horn through the  Galata Bridge and Unkapani Bridge. Beyoglu is the most active art, entertainment and night life centre of  Istanbul.

Modern day Beyoglu is a major entertainment and shopping district for people from all sorts of ages and backgrounds in  Istanbul. The main thoroughfare is the historical and attractive  Istiklâl Caddesi, running into the neighbourhood from  Taksim Square, a pedestrianised solid mile of shops, cafés, patisseries, restaurants, pubs, winehouses and clubs, as well as some of the city's best bookshops, theatres, cinemas and art galleries. Much of  Istiklâl has a 19th century metropolitan character, and the avenue is lined with elegant Neoclassical and Art Nouveau buildings. A large restoration movement has been initiated since the 1990s, and many of these historic buildings have been repaired and restored, even though some of them are still in various states of decay. The nostalgic tram which runs on  Istiklal Avenue, between  Taksim Square and  Tunel, was also re-installed in the early 1990s with the aim of reviving the historic atmosphere of the district.


Most of the  Istanbul's historic pubs and winehouses are located in the areas around  Istiklal Avenue in Beyoglu. The 19th century  Cicek Pasaji(literally Flower Passage in Turkish, or Cité de Péra in French, opened in 1876) on  Istiklal Avenue can be described as a miniature version of the famous Galleria in Milan, Italy, and has rows of historic pubs, winehouses and restaurants. The site of  Cicek Pasaji was originally occupied by the Naum Theatre, which was burned during the great fire of Pera in 1870. The theatre was frequently visited by Sultans Abdulaziz and Abdulhamid II, and hosted Giuseppe Verdi's play Il Trovatore before the opera houses of Paris. After the fire of 1870, the theatre was purchased by the local Greek banker Hristaki Zografos Efendi, and Italian architect Zanno designed the current building, which was called Cité de Péra or Hristaki Pasaji in its early years. Yorgo'nun Meyhanesi (Yorgo's Winehouse) was the first winehouse to be opened in the passage. In 1908 the Ottoman Grand Vizier Sait Pasa purchased the building, and it became known as the Sait Pasa Passage. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, many impoverished noble Russian women, including a Baroness, sold flowers here. By the 1940s the building was mostly occupied by flower shops, hence the present Turkish name  Cicek Pasaji (Flower Passage).


Following the restoration of the building in 1988, it was reopened as a galleria of pubs and restaurants.

Pano, established by Panayot Papadopoulos in 1898, and the neighbouring Viktor Levi, established in 1914, are among the oldest winehouses in the city and are located on Kalyoncu Kulluk Street near the British Consulate and  Galatasaray Square. Cumhuriyet Meyhanesi (literally Republic Winehouse), called this way since the early 1930s but originally established in the early 1890s, is another popular historic winehouse and is located in the nearby Sahne Street, along with the Hazzopulo Winehouse, established in 1871, inside the Hazzopulo Pasaji which connects Sahne Street and Mesrutiyet Avenue. The famous Nevizade Street, which has rows of historic pubs next to each other, is also in this area. Other historic pubs are found in the areas around  Tunel Pasaji and the nearby Asmalimescit Street. Some historic neighbourhoods around 59 Istiklal Avenue] have recently been recreated, such as  Cezayir Street near Galatasaray Lisesi,at  Galatasaray Square which became known as La Rue Francaise and has rows of francophone pubs, cafés and restaurants playing live French music. Artiste Terasse (Artist Teras) on Cezayir Street is a popular restaurant-bar which offers panoramic views of the  Hagia Sophia,  Topkapi Palace,  Sultanahmet Mosque and  Galata Tower.


Throughout Beyoglu, there are many night clubs for all kinds of tastes. Babylon and Nu Pera are among the most popular European style night clubs and restaurants in the district, while Kemanci plays rock, hard rock and heavy metal. Maksim plays Oriental music, while Andon is a place where one can eat, drink and dance to the traditional Turkish music called fasil. There are also classy restaurants on the top of historic buildings with a magnificent view of  Istanbul, such as 360. The Ottoman era Rejans is a historic Russian restaurant. Asmalimescit Street has rows of traditional Turkish restaurants and Ocakbasi (grill) houses, while the streets around the historic Balikpazari (Fish Market) is full of eateries offering seafood like fried mussels and calamari along with beer or raki, or the traditional kokorec. Beyoglu also has many elegant pasaj (passages) from the 19th century, most of which have historic and classy chocolateries and patisseries, such the Markiz Pastanesi, along with many shops lining their alleys. There is also a wide range of fast-food restaurants in the district, of international chains such as McDonald's, Burger King, Domino's Pizza, Pizza Hut, etc; as well as local Turkish chains, such as Simit Sarayi which serves simit (sesame-covered, ring-shaped pretzel bread) along with cheese and tea, or individual eateries such as doner kebab houses.
                                         
Beyoglu is just as vibrant in daytime as it is at night. Apart from the hundreds of shops lining the streets and avenues of the district, there is also a substantial business community. Odakule, a 1970s highrise building (the first "structural expressionism" style building in Turkey) is the headquarters of  Istanbul Sanayi Odasi (ISO) (Istanbul Chamber of Industry) and is located between  Istiklal Avenue and Tepebasi, next to the Pera Museum. Most of the upper floors of the buildings in Beyoglu are office space, and small workshops are found on the side streets.

Istanbul Modern, located near  Karakoy Port on the  Bosphorus with a magnificent view of the Seraglio Point, resembles Tate Modern in many ways and frequently hosts the exhibitions of renowned Turkish and foreign artists.


Pera Museum exhibits some of the most interesting works of art from the late Ottoman period, such as the famous Kaplumbaga Terbiyecisi (Turtle Trainer) of Osman Hamdi Bey. Apart from its permanent collection, the museum also hosts visiting exhibitions, which included the works of world-famous artists like Rembrandt. Dogancay Museum, Turkey's first contemporary art museum dedicated to the works of a single artist, officially opened its doors to the public in 2004. While the museum almost exclusively displays the works of its founder Burhan Dogancay, one of Turkey's foremost contemporary artists, one floor has been set aside for the works of the artist's father, Adil Dogancay.

Hotel Pera Palace, built in 1892 for hosting the passengers of the Orient Express, is another renowned structure in the district. Agatha Christie wrote her most famous novel, Murder on the Orient Express, in this hotel, and her room is still conserved as a museum.

Beyoglu also has many historical Tekkes and Turbes, and several Sufi orders such as the Cihangiri (pronounced Jihangiri) order were founded here.

S. Antonio di Padova on  Istiklal Avenue, the largest Catholic church in  Istanbul, and Neve Shalom Synagogue, the largest synagogue in  Istanbul, are also in Beyoglu. There are numerous other Catholic and Orthodox churches in the area.

Istiklal Avenue


Istiklal Avenue (Turkish: Istiklal Caddesi) is one of the most famous avenues in  Istanbul,visited by nearly 3 million people in a single day over the course of weekends. Located in the historic  Beyoglu district, it is an elegant pedestrian street, approximately three kilometers long, which houses exquisite boutiques, music stores, bookstores, art galleries, cinemas, theaters, libraries, cafes, pubs, night clubs with live music, historical patisseries, chocolateries and restaurants. The avenue, surrounded by the unique nineteenth century Turkish architecture, starts from the medieval Genoese neighbourhood around  Galata Tower and ultimately leads up to  Taksim Square.

Historic tram on Istiklal Avenue Galatasaray Square is located at approximately the center of the avenue and is home to one of the finest educational institutions established in Turkey at the time of the Ottoman Empire; originally known as the  Galata Sarayi Enderun-u Humayunu ( Galata Palace Imperial School) and today known as Galatasaray Lisesi.
In the historic  Karakoy district towards the end of the avenue, it is possible to see the world's second-oldest subway station, generally known and referred to as simply Tunel (The Tunnel) which entered service in 1875. Moreover, the German High School of  Istanbul (Deutsche Schule  Istanbul in German, Ozel Alman Lisesi in Turkish), one of the best high schools in  Istanbul, is also located near Tunel.

The cosmopolitan avenue is surrounded by an array of historical and politically significant buildings, such as the  Cicek Pasaji (Flower Passage) where small, intimate restaurants and taverns are found; Balik Pazari (The Fish Market), the Italian Catholic churches of Santa Maria and  S. Antonio di Padova, the Greek Orthodox Haghia Triada, the Armenian Church (among many other churches), several synagogues, mosques, academic institutions established by various European nations such as Austria, France, Germany and Italy in the early 19th century, consulates (former embassies before 1923) of several nations including France, Greece, Russia, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. During the Ottoman period, the avenue was called Cadde-i Kebir (Grand Avenue) and was a popular spot for Ottoman intellectuals, also becoming a center for European foreigners and the local Italian and French Levantines who referred to it as Grande Rue de Péra. When 19th century travelers referred to Constantinople (today,  Istanbul) as the Paris of the East, they were mentioning the Grande Rue de Péra (Istiklal Caddesi) and its half-European, half-Asian culture. With the declaration of the Republic on October 29, 1923, the avenue's name was changed to Istiklal (Independence) for commemorating the triumph at the Turkish War of Independence.



Taksim Square


Taksim Square (Turkish: Taksim Meydani) situated in the  European part of  Istanbul,in  Beyoglu district,is a major shopping, tourist and leisure district famed for its restaurants, shops and hotels. It is considered the heart of modern  Istanbul, and is the location of the  Cumhuriyet Aniti (Republic Monument), which was built in 1928 and commemorates the formation of the Turkish Republic.

Taksim, from Arabic taksim, means "division" or "distribution". The Taksim square was originally the point where the main water lines from the north of  Istanbul were collected and branched off to other parts of the city (hence the name). This use for the area was established by Sultan Mahmud I. The square takes its name from the stone reservoir which is located in this area. Additionally, the word "Taksim" can refer to a special improvisational musical form in Turkish classical music that is guided by the Makam system. Taksim is a main transportation hub and a popular destination for both tourists and the native population of  Istanbul.  Istiklal Caddesi (Independence Avenue), a long pedestrian shopping street, ends at this square, and a nostalgic tram runs from the square along the avenue, ending near the  Tunel (1875) which is the world's second-oldest subway line after London's Underground (1863). Surrounding Taksim Square are numerous travel agencies, hotels, restaurants, pubs, and international fast food chains such as Pizza Hut, McDonald's and Burger King. It is also home to some of  Istanbul's grandest hotels including the InterContinental, the Ritz-Carlton and The Marmara Hotel.

Taksim is also a favourite location for public events such as parades, New Year celebrations or other social gatherings. Ataturk Cultural Center (in Turkish, Ataturk Kultur Merkezi), a multi-purpose cultural center and opera house, is also located on Taksim Square.Taksim Square is an important hub for public transport in  Istanbul. In addition to serving as the main transfer point for the municipal bus system, Taksim Square is also the terminus of the 4.Levent-Taksim subway line of the  Istanbul Metro. The  Istiklal Avenue- Tunel nostalgic tram line also starts in Taksim.

Taksim's position was given an extra boost on June 29, 2006, when the new funicular line connecting the Taksim Metro station with the Kabatas tramway station and seaport was opened, allowing riders to ascend to Taksim in just 110 seconds


by wikipedia

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